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Старый 25.05.2009, 19:45   #512 (permalink)
sksksk
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Регистрация: 25.05.2009
Из: moscow
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а можно мне тоже попросить помощи
знающие люди - на сколько потянет такое эссе? чесно открыл ielts practice book взял тему и никуда не глядя написал за 38 минут.

Some governments say how many children a family can hare in their country. They may
control the number of children someone has through taxes.
It is sometimes necessary and right for a government to control the population in this way.
Do you agree or disagree?
Give reasons for your answer.

These days several countries tries to control number of children families can have. There is a number of ways to do so. The most frequently used is taxation of people who has larger the targeted by the government number of children. I think that fiscal policy is the correct way for the government to achieve this target.

There are various types of policy the government may use to control the number of children that familles have. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages. Lets' look at them more carefully. First of all, it is possible to simply disallow birth of children above some fixed number to every woman in the country. This policy was used by China and proved to be ineffective. Although it did help to lower the birth rate it created many other problems. For example, large number women still wanted to have many children and were forced to give birth not in state controlled hospitals but in insanitary conditions at home. This resulted in sharp increase of newborn mortality rate. Moreover, the number of illegal abortion has also risen.

The second kind of policy aimed at controlling birth rate is by prohibition of marriage for women who did not reach some fixed age - for example, in Bangladesh this age is set at twenty eight years. The rationale for this is that most children are born by married women and the later a woman gets married the less children she will be able to have. Although this policy allowed Bangladesh government to quickly achieve desired fall in birth rate it seems to me it is very cruel and unjust from the moral point of view. Marriage is on the most important thing in our life. It is the confrmation of the feeling of love and devotion between two people and I suspect that this policy has led a large number of broken hearts. Just try to imagine young lady who is 22 years of age and in love with someone. Almost surely, her chosen one will not agree to wait for six years and will try to find another woman who is allowed to marry him. Therefore, I think that this policy also creates more problems than it solves.

Finally, some countries have chosen tax policy as a mean of controlling birth rate. It works as follows: if the family decided to have another child it is free to do it but it has to pay child tax which is set at rather high level. This policy is quite soft as it does not directly ban birth of new children. At the same time if tax rate is high not many families will be wanting to have them. Moreover, it does not create health or moral problems I mentioned above. Of course, some might say that it is discriminative policy as only rich people can have many children under it. It is true, but this way those children who are actually born will be guaranteed to have good care simply because wealthy parents can afford it.

To summarize, there is a number of ways how the government can control birth rate in the country. All of them can be critisized from different points of view and have costs for the society as well as benefits. However, for some of them these costs are large and for some are quite small. I believe that tax policy is the kind of policy which has lowest level of cost associated with it and therefore agree with the statement that if the government need to control birth rate it should use fiscal policy.


потом посмотрел на предоженный ответ и подумал что тему не ракрыл. но мне показалось что вопрос именно стоит и том хорош ли налоговыый метод борьбы с рождаемостьб а не общий о том нужно ли вобще с этим бороться.

спасибо заранее.
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